Tuesday, December 30, 2008
Review of the guidelines for complicated skin and soft tissue infections and intra-abdominal infections--are they applicable today?
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008 Dec
Hospital Clínico Universitario, Medical School, Santiago de Compostela, Spain. email@example.com
Difficult-to-treat infections in surgical patients, such as serious skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs), are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality, and carry an economic burden. These surgical site infections are typically polymicrobial infections caused by a plethora of pathogens, which include difficult-to-treat organisms and multiresistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. Optimal management of SSTIs and cIAIs must take into account the presence of resistant pathogens, and depends on the administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy (i.e. the correct spectrum, route and dose in a timely fashion for a sufficient duration as well as the timely implementation of source control measures). Treatment recommendations from the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Surgical Infection Society are available for guidance in the management of both of these infections, yet the increased global prevalence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has complicated the antibiotic selection process. Several pathogens of concern include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, responsible for problematic postoperative infections, especially in patients with SSTIs, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria, including CTX-M-type-producing Escherichia coli strains, and multidrug-resistant strains of Bacteroides fragilis. New empirical regimens, taking advantage of potent broad-spectrum antibiotic options, may be needed for the treatment of certain high-risk patients with surgical site infections.
Modern Concepts of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Necrotizing Fasciitis
J Emerg Med. 2008 Dec 10.
Background: Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection involving rapidly progressive, widespread necrosis of the superficial fascia. Objectives: The purpose of this collective review is to review modern concepts of the treatment and diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis.
Discussion: Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by widespread necrosis of the subcutaneous tissue and the fascia. Although the pathogenesis of necrotizing fasciitis is still open to speculation, the rapid and destructive clinical course of necrotizing fasciitis is thought to be due to multibacterial symbiosis.
During the last two decades, scientists have found that the pathogenesis of necrotizing fasciitis is usually polymicrobial, rather than monomicrobial. Although there has been no published well-controlled, clinical trial comparing the efficacies of various diagnostic imaging modalities in the diagnosis of necrotizing infections, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred technique to detect soft tissue infection. MRI provides unsurpassed soft tissue contrast and spatial resolution, has high sensitivity in detecting soft tissue fluid, and has multiplanar capabilities.
Percutaneous needle aspiration followed by prompt Gram's staining and culture for a rapid bacteriologic diagnosis in soft tissue infections is recommended. Surgery complemented by antibiotics is the primary treatment of necrotizing fasciitis.
Conclusion: Wide, extensive debridement of all tissues that can be easily elevated off the fascia with gentle pressure should be undertaken. Successful use of intravenous immunoglobulin has been reported in the treatment of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The use of adjunctive therapies, such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy, for necrotizing fasciitis infection continues to receive much attention.