Friday, November 16, 2012


The use of antimicrobial-impregnated PMMA to manage periprosthetic infections: controversial issues and the latest developments.

The use of antimicrobial-impregnated PMMA to manage periprosthetic infections: controversial issues and the latest developments.

Nov 2012


Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai - China and Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Changzhou Wujin Hospital, Jiangsu University School of Medicine, Jiangsu - China.


Despite improvements in intraoperative antimicrobial procedures, in surgical techniques and in implant design for joint replacement, periprosthetic infection after arthroplasty is still one of the most challenging problems encountered by orthopedic surgeons. Systemic antibiotics are not sufficiently effective to eradicate such deep infections because of the impaired blood circulation and low antibiotic concentration at the implantation site. As a local drug delivery system, antibiotic-impregnated PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) bone cements have been widely used for prophylaxis or treatment of deepinfections after total joint replacement. However, the effectiveness of antibiotic-loaded PMMA in preventing infections after arthroplasty is still controversial. Furthermore, the outcomes of established deep infections treated with this technique are not consistent. The local use of antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and has adverse effects on the function of osteogenic cells. Recently, many efforts have been made to identify new antibacterial agents that can be loaded into PMMA. These antimicrobial agents should exhibit good antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant strains and should simultaneously enhance osteointegration between the PMMA and the bone tissue. PMMA loaded with chitosan or chitosan derivatives has been demonstrated to induce improved osteogenic activity and to exhibit antibacterial activity in a preclinical study.


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